Climate change: Data from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have helped scientists understand climate change on the red planet. The orbiter's Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument recently showed subsurface geology letting scientists reconstruct the formation of a large chasm and a series of spiral troughs on the northern ice cap of Mars. According to NASA, data from Mars now points to both the canyon and spiral troughs being created and shaped primarily by wind. Rather than being cut into existing ice very recently, the features formed over millions of years as the ice sheet grew. By influencing wind patterns, the shape of underlying, older ice controlled where and how the features grew.